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Create RESTful API in CodeIgniter 4

Posted in CodeIgniter 4, Tutorial PHP by samsonasik on April 9, 2020

In CodeIgniter 4, there is already CodeIgniter\RESTful\ResourceController that make building RESTful API easier. It can consume the model by provide modelName property.

Preparation

1. Register Routes

// app/Config/Routes.php
$routes->resource('products');

2. Create Model and Entity Classes

For example, we have the ProductModel class:

<?php namespace App\Models;

use App\Entities\Product;
use CodeIgniter\Model;

class ProductModel extends Model
{
    protected $table           = 'product';

    /**
     *  $returnType as entity class  in RESTful API might not work in CodeIgniter 4.0.2.
     *  You can define as "object" at CodeIgniter 4.0.2 for RESTful API usage.
     *
     *       protected $returnType      = 'object';
     *
     */
    protected $returnType      = Product::class;

    protected $allowedFields   = [
        'product_code',
        'product_name',
    ];
    protected $validationRules = [
        'product_code' => 'required|alpha_numeric|exact_length[5]|is_unique[product.product_code,id,{id}]',
        'product_name' => 'required|alpha_numeric_space|min_length[3]|max_length[255]|is_unique[product.product_name,id,{id}]',
    ];
}

Above model require entity class, so, we can create as follow:

<?php namespace App\Entities;

use CodeIgniter\Entity;

class Product extends Entity
{
    protected $attributes = [
        'product_code' => null,
        'product_name' => null,
    ];

        // filter on create/update data if necessary
    public function setProductCode(string $productCode): self
    {
        $this->attributes['product_code'] = strtoupper($productCode);
        return $this;
    }

        // filter on create/update data if necessary
    public function setProductName(string $productName): self
    {
        $this->attributes['product_name'] = ucwords($productName);
        return $this;
    }
}

3. Ensure the pages has “csrf” filter DISABLED for the RESTful API pages

CSRF usually uses only for public web interation forms. For API, we can use authorization token (eg: for Oauth usage). We can disable csrf filter in app/Config/Filters.php like the following:

<?php namespace Config;

use App\Filters\PostRequestOnly;
use CodeIgniter\Config\BaseConfig;

class Filters extends BaseConfig
{
    // ... 

    public $globals = [
        'before' => [
            'csrf' => [
                'except' =>  [
                    '/products',
                    '/products/*',
                ],
            ],
        ],
    ];

    // ...
}

The API

We can create a controller for it, that extends CodeIgniter\RESTful\ResourceController:

<?php namespace App\Controllers;

use CodeIgniter\RESTful\ResourceController;

class Products extends ResourceController
{
    protected $modelName = 'App\Models\ProductModel';
    protected $format    = 'json';
}

For display all products, we can create method index:

// ...
    public function index()
    {
        return $this->respond($this->model->findAll());
    }
// ...

This is the output of all products:

product index show all API RESTful

For display product by id, we can add method show:

// ...
    public function show($id = null)
    {
        $record = $this->model->find($id);
        if (! $record)
        {
            return $this->failNotFound(sprintf(
                'product with id %d not found',
                $id
            ));
        }

        return $this->respond($record);
    }
// ...

This is the output when product found and not found:

product detail API RESTful

For create new product data, we can add method create:

// ...
    public function create()
    {
        $data = $this->request->getPost();
        if (! $this->model->save($data))
        {
            return $this->fail($this->model->errors());
        }

        return $this->respondCreated($data, 'product created');
    }
// ...

Above, we use getPost() from request object to get POST data. This is the output when product creation is succeed and failed:

product creation API RESTful

For update product data, we can add method update:

// ...
    public function update($id = null)
    {
        $data       = $this->request->getRawInput();
        $data['id'] = $id;

        if (! $this->model->save($data))
        {
            return $this->fail($this->model->errors());
        }

        return $this->respond($data, 200, 'product updated');
    }
// ...

Above, we use getRawInput() from request object to get PUT data. Currently, there is no “respondUpdated” method, I created Pull Request for it at https://github.com/codeigniter4/CodeIgniter4/pull/2816 for addition of “respondUpdated” method.

This is the output when product update is succeed and failed:

product update API RESTful

Now, the last one, the delete, we can add delete method:

// ...
    public function delete($id = null)
    {
        $delete = $this->model->delete($id);
        if ($this->model->db->affectedRows() === 0)
        {
            return $this->failNotFound(sprintf(
                'product with id %d not found or already deleted',
                $id
            ));
        }

        return $this->respondDeleted(['id' => $id], 'product deleted');
    }
//...

This is the output when product delete is succeed and failed:

product detail API RESTful

That’s it 😉

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