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Create API Service in CodeIgniter 4 with Request Filtering

Posted in CodeIgniter 4, Teknologi, Tutorial PHP by samsonasik on September 22, 2018

In CodeIgniter 4, there is a trait that specialized to be used for API, named CodeIgniter\API\ResponseTrait for that, that consist of collection of functionality to build a response. How about request filtering ? We will need a filter class that implements CodeIgniter\Filters\FilterInterface interface.

For example, we are going to create a /api/ping api service, which will returns time value, we can create controller as follow:

<?php
// application/Controllers/Api/Ping.php
declare(strict_types=1);

namespace App\Controllers\Api;

use function time;

use CodeIgniter\API\ResponseTrait;
use CodeIgniter\Controller;
use CodeIgniter\HTTP\ResponseInterface;

final class Ping extends Controller
{
    use ResponseTrait;

	public function index(): ResponseInterface
	{
        return $this->respond(['ack' => time()]);
    }
}

Without filtering, we can call url and got result like the following based on Accept header, for example, for application/xml, it will get:

➜  ~ curl -i -H "Accept: application/xml" http://localhost:8080/api/ping
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Host: localhost:8080
Date: Sat, 22 Sep 2018 01:11:30 -0500
Connection: close
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.9
Cache-control: no-store, max-age=0, no-cache
Content-Type: application/xml; charset=UTF-8
Debugbar-Time: 1537596690
Debugbar-Link: http://localhost:8080/index.php/?debugbar_time=1537596690

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<response><ack>1537596690</ack></response>

and when it changed to application/json, it will get:

➜  ~ curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" http://localhost:8080/api/ping
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Host: localhost:8080
Date: Sat, 22 Sep 2018 01:11:53 -0500
Connection: close
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.9
Cache-control: no-store, max-age=0, no-cache
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Debugbar-Time: 1537596713
Debugbar-Link: http://localhost:8080/index.php/?debugbar_time=1537596713

{
    "ack": 1537596713
}

Let’s try create filter it to only allow the “POST” request! We can create filter as follow:

<?php
// application/Filters/PostRequestOnly.php
declare(strict_types=1);

namespace App\Filters;

use CodeIgniter\Filters\FilterInterface;
use CodeIgniter\HTTP\RequestInterface;
use CodeIgniter\HTTP\ResponseInterface;
use Config\Services;

final class PostRequestOnly implements FilterInterface
{
	public function before(RequestInterface $request)
	{
        if ($request->getMethod() === 'post') {
            return;
        }

        return Services::response()
            ->setStatusCode(ResponseInterface::HTTP_METHOD_NOT_ALLOWED);
    }

	public function after(RequestInterface $request, ResponseInterface $response)
	{
	}
}

In above PostRequestOnly filter, we are allowing request only for “POST”, other request methods will get response with “Method Not Allowed” (405). To make it work, we need register it into Config\Filters::$aliases class under application directory, and ensure it applied into Config\Filters::$filters to register specific uri for the filter, as follow:

<?php
// application/Config/Filters.php

// ...
use App\Filters\PostRequestOnly;

class Filters extends BaseConfig
{
	public $aliases = [
        // ...
        'postRequestOnly' => PostRequestOnly::class,
    ];

    // ...

	public $filters = [
        // ...
        'postRequestOnly' => [
            'before' => [
                'api/ping',
            ],
        ],
    ];
}

That’s it! Now, when we try to see different result with GET and POST, it will get the following response:

GET: Method Not Allowed 405

➜  ~ curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -X GET http://localhost:8080/api/ping
HTTP/1.1 405 Method Not Allowed
Host: localhost:8080
Date: Sat, 22 Sep 2018 13:12:22 +0700
Connection: close
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.9
Cache-control: no-store, max-age=0, no-cache
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

POST: Got Response OK 200

➜  ~ curl -i -H "Accept: application/json" -X POST http://localhost:8080/api/ping
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Host: localhost:8080
Date: Sat, 22 Sep 2018 01:12:54 -0500
Connection: close
X-Powered-By: PHP/7.2.9
Cache-control: no-store, max-age=0, no-cache
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Debugbar-Time: 1537596774
Debugbar-Link: http://localhost:8080/index.php/?debugbar_time=1537596774

{
    "ack": 1537596774
}

Upload File with Validation in CodeIgniter 4

Posted in CodeIgniter 4, Tutorial PHP by samsonasik on September 5, 2018

In CodeIgniter 4, there is CodeIgniter\Validation\FileRules that can be used out of the box from validate() from controllers that we can using it on upload process.

For example, we have an upload form page with flow as follow:

  1. Display form at /form page with “avatar” file field
  2. Process form at /form/process with validations:
    • is uploaded
    • is mime in image/jpg,image/jpeg,image/gif,image/png
    • the max size is less or equal than 4MB
  3. On valid upload, we move uploaded file to writable/uploads directory.

Before we start, please ensure that you’re using latest CodeIgniter4 develop branch by clone it:

$ git clone https://github.com/bcit-ci/CodeIgniter4.git

If you already have it, ensure to pull latest develop branch via command:

$ cd CodeIgniter4
$ git checkout develop
$ git remote add upstream https://github.com/bcit-ci/CodeIgniter4.git
$ git pull upstream develop

Most of the time, the updated code in the CodeIgniter4 repository will be core framework (system) and its tests, so, if we need to be always up to date framework, we can create new branch based on develop branch, for example:

$ git checkout -b tutorial-upload

Then, we can regularly rebase against develop :

$ git checkout develop && git pull upstream develop
$ git checkout tutorial-upload && git rebase develop

Enough with introduction, let’s start with code!

1. Display Form

<?php
// application/Views/form.php
$validationErrors = $this->config->plugins['validation_errors'];

helper('form');
echo form_open(
    'form/process',
    [
        'enctype' => 'multipart/form-data'
    ]
);

echo form_input('avatar', '', '', 'file');
echo $validationErrors(['field' => 'avatar']);

echo form_submit('Send', 'Send');
echo form_close();

Above, we display form with form helpers, and display validation errors by get it in validation_errors key in plugins.

To make it a form page, we can create a Form controller as follow:

<?php
// application/Controllers/Form.php
namespace App\Controllers;

use CodeIgniter\Controller;

class Form extends Controller
{
    public function index()
    {
        return view('form');
    }
}

To see the page, let’s fire a command:

$ php spark serve

The form page is now displayed at http://localhost:8080/form or http://localhost:8080/form/index like below:

2. Upload validation

We are going to use “form/process” page for file upload validation, so, we can create an process() function at the Form controller:

class Form extends Controller
{
    // ...
    public function process()
    {
        // verify if request method is POST
        if ($this->request->getMethod() !== 'post') {
            return redirect('index');
        }

        // validation
        $validated = $this->validate([
            'avatar' => [
                'uploaded[avatar]',
                'mime_in[avatar,image/jpg,image/jpeg,image/gif,image/png]',
                'max_size[avatar,4096]',
            ],
        ]);

        if ($validated) {
            // Business!
        }

        return redirect('index')->withInput();
    }
}

On above process() function, the validate() call supply the rules of avatar field needed, which are uploaded, mime_in, and max_size which we can found as functions at CodeIgniter\Validation\FileRules. When it is valid, it will returns true. We redirect back to /form/index with bring validation errors that saved in session flash with key _ci_validation_errors to be allowed to be displayed once in the next request like below:

3. Move uploaded file to writable/uploads directory

We have a WRITEPATH constant that refers to writable directory, and we can use its “$request->getFile(‘avatar’)->move()” to it, so when we have validated, we can do:

if ($validated) {
    $avatar = $this->request->getFile('avatar');
    $avatar->move(WRITEPATH . 'uploads');
}

That’s it! The complete Form controller class can be as follow:

<?php
// application/Controllers/Form.php
namespace App\Controllers;

use CodeIgniter\Controller;

class Form extends Controller
{
    public function index()
    {
        return view('form');
    }

    public function process()
    {
        if ($this->request->getMethod() !== 'post') {
            return redirect('index');
        }

        $validated = $this->validate([
            'avatar' => [
                'uploaded[avatar]',
                'mime_in[avatar,image/jpg,image/jpeg,image/gif,image/png]',
                'max_size[avatar,4096]',
            ],
        ]);

        if ($validated) {
            $avatar = $this->request->getFile('avatar');
            $avatar->move(WRITEPATH . 'uploads');
        }

        return redirect('index')->withInput();
    }
}

Testing CodeIgniter 4 application with kahlan ^3.0

Posted in CodeIgniter 4, Tutorial PHP by samsonasik on January 14, 2017

This is another post series about CodeIgniter and Kahlan, but now, it will uses CodeIgniter 4. CodeIgniter 4 requires some constants and required classes and functions to be included during application bootstrap to make front controller works.
For example, we need to do functional test App\Controllers\Home controller, this is the kahlan-config.php we need to have:

<?php

use CodeIgniter\CodeIgniter;
use CodeIgniter\Services;
use Config\App;
use Config\Autoload;
use Kahlan\Filter\Filter;

Filter::register('ci.start', function($chain) {
    $root = $this->suite();
    $root->beforeAll(function ($var) {

        define('ENVIRONMENT', 'testing');
        define('BASEPATH',    'system'      . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR);
        define('APPPATH',     'application' . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR);
        define('ROOTPATH',    'public'      . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR);
        define('WRITEPATH',   'writable'    . DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR);
        define('CI_DEBUG',    1);

        require BASEPATH . 'Autoloader/Autoloader.php';
        require APPPATH  . 'Config/Constants.php';
        require APPPATH  . 'Config/Autoload.php';
        require APPPATH  . 'Config/Services.php';

        class_alias('Config\Services', 'CodeIgniter\Services');

        $loader = Services::autoloader();
        $loader->initialize(new Autoload());
        $loader->register();

        require BASEPATH . 'Common.php';
        $app = new App();
        Services::exceptions($app, true)->initialize();

        $var->codeIgniter = new CodeIgniter(
            $app
        );

    });
    return $chain->next();
});
Filter::apply($this, 'run', 'ci.start');

We now can call $this->codeIgniter property in all entire tests.

We can then place the spec under spec/ directory:

.
├── DCO.txt
├── README.md
├── application
│   ├── Controllers
│   │   └── Home.php
├── spec
│   └── Controllers
│       └── HomeDispatchSpec.php

We can apply $_SESSION['argv'] and $_SESSION['argc'] to assign URI routing data:

$_SERVER['argv'] = [
    __FILE__,
    '/', // path
];
$_SERVER['argc'] = 2;

ob_start();
$this->codeIgniter->run();
$actual = ob_get_clean();

expect($actual)->toContain('Welcome to CodeIgniter');

Here is the complete tests:

<?php

namespace AppSpec\Controllers;

describe('Home Dispatch', function () {

    describe('/', function () {

        it('contains "welcome" greeting', function () {

            $_SERVER['argv'] = [
                __FILE__,
                '/', // path
            ];
            $_SERVER['argc'] = 2;

            ob_start();
            $this->codeIgniter->run();
            $actual = ob_get_clean();

            expect($actual)->toContain('Welcome to CodeIgniter');

        });

    });

});

Time to run test:

$ vendor/bin/kahlan --coverage=4 --src=application/Controllers/Home.php
            _     _
  /\ /\__ _| |__ | | __ _ _ __
 / //_/ _` | '_ \| |/ _` | '_ \
/ __ \ (_| | | | | | (_| | | | |
\/  \/\__,_|_| |_|_|\__,_|_| | |

The PHP Test Framework for Freedom, Truth and Justice.

Working Directory: /Users/samsonasik/www/CodeIgniter4

.                                                                   1 / 1 (100%)



Expectations   : 1 Executed
Specifications : 0 Pending, 0 Excluded, 0 Skipped

Passed 1 of 1 PASS in 0.120 seconds (using 4Mo)

Coverage Summary
----------------
                               Lines           %

 \                             1 / 1     100.00%
└── App\                       1 / 1     100.00%
   └── Controllers\            1 / 1     100.00%
      └── Home                 1 / 1     100.00%
         └── Home::index()     1 / 1     100.00%

Total: 100.00% (1/1)

Coverage collected in 0.003 seconds (using an additionnal 16Ko)

Done 😉

Tagged with: ,

Using Layout in CodeIgniter 4

Posted in CodeIgniter 4, Tutorial PHP by samsonasik on November 25, 2016

CodeIgniter 4 is not ready for production use, but we can already play with it. We can apply layout support to avoid repetitive header/footer/sidebar html code in our application’s views by provide helper and autoload it in the hook.

Ok, let’s start, first, we can clone a CI4 project by run command:

git clone https://github.com/bcit-ci/CodeIgniter4.git

We can use PHP-Development server launcher by go to CodeIgniter4 directory and run command:

php serve.php 

and we will get the page:
ci4
The view of “Home::index()” of controller is placed at application/Views/welcome_message.php:

application/
├── Config
├── Controllers
│   └── Home.php
├── Views
│   ├── errors
│   ├── form.php
│   └── welcome_message.php

with code called in the controller like the following:

<?php namespace App\Controllers;

use CodeIgniter\Controller;

class Home extends Controller
{
    public function index()
    {
        return view('welcome_message');  
    }
}

For example, we need to move the header and footer to the separate file, named application/Views/layout.php:

application/
├── Config
├── Controllers
│   └── Home.php
├── Views
│   ├── errors
│   ├── form.php
│   ├── layout.php
│   └── welcome_message.php

So, Let’s prepare the layout:

<html>
   <head></head> <!-- move code from welcome_message.php's html <head> to here -->
   <body>
        <!-- move code from welcome_message.php's style to here, 
             or use separate file for css and apply to <head>
        -->
	
        <div class="wrap">
            <?php echo $content; ?>
        </div>
   </body>
</html>

Now, we can write a helper to wrap it, for example, named render helper. We can create a file named application/Helpers/render_helper.php:

application/
├── Config
├── Controllers
├── Helpers
│   └── render_helper.php
├── Views

Our render helper can have function() for render view with layout functionality, which we get the content of view, and then apply to the layout:

<?php

if ( ! function_exists('render'))
{
    function render(string $name, array $data = [], array $options = [])
    {
        return view(
            'layout',
            [
                'content' => view($name, $data, $options),
            ],
            $options
        );
    }
}

If most of the controllers will use the render helper, we can then autoload it in the Events:

application/
├── Config
│   ├── Events.php
├── Controllers
├── Helpers
├── Views

with post_controller_constructor event point:

<?php namespace Config;

use CodeIgniter\Events\Events;

Events::on('post_controller_constructor', function() {
    helper('render');
});

And now, we are ready to use the render() function in the controller:

<?php namespace App\Controllers;

use CodeIgniter\Controller;

class Home extends Controller
{
    public function index()
    {
        return render('welcome_message');  
    }
}

Done 😉